Ocean thermal energy conversion - Wikipedia

 

applications of ocean energy

An ocean thermal energy conversion power plant built by Makai Ocean Engineering went operational in Hawaii in August The governor of Hawaii, David Ige, "flipped the switch" to activate the plant. This is the first true closed-cycle ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plant to . Renewable energy is the way of the future. The Ocean Sonics family of products ensures that renewable energy projects remain compliant with regulations. The icListen Smart Hydrophone makes underwater sound measurement easy, so securing your project area, monitoring for environemtnal impact, and adhering to regulatory framework is simplified. From protein analysis to semiconductor processing and solar energy research, Ocean Optics provides the technology and spectroscopy applications know-how to help you solve measurement challenges. We collaborate with bold, passionate innovators who believe in .


Applications - Ocean Optics


Ocean thermal energy conversion OTEC uses the temperature difference between cooler deep and warmer shallow or surface seawaters to run a heat engine and applications of ocean energy useful workusually in the form of electricity. OTEC can operate with a very high capacity factor and so can operate in base load mode. Among ocean energy sources, OTEC is one of the continuously available renewable energy resources that could contribute to base-load power supply.

Systems may be either closed-cycle or open-cycle. Closed-cycle OTEC uses working fluids that are typically thought of as refrigerants such as ammonia or Ra.

The most commonly used heat cycle for OTEC to date is the Rankine cycleusing a low-pressure turbine. Open-cycle engines use vapour from the seawater itself as the working fluid. OTEC can also supply quantities of cold water as a by-product. This can be used for air conditioning and refrigeration and the nutrient-rich deep ocean water can feed biological technologies.

Another by-product is fresh water distilled from the sea. OTEC theory was first developed in the s and the first bench size demonstration model was constructed in Attempts to develop and refine OTEC technology started in the s. InJacques Arsene d'Arsonvala French physicistproposed tapping the thermal energy of the ocean. InClaude constructed a plant aboard a 10, ton cargo vessel moored off the coast of Brazil.

Weather and waves destroyed it before it could generate net power. The plant was never completed, because new finds of large amounts of cheap petroleum made it uneconomical. InJ. Hilbert Anderson and James H. Anderson, Jr. They patented their new "closed cycle" design in At the time, applications of ocean energy, their research garnered little attention since coal and nuclear were considered the future of energy, applications of ocean energy.

Japan is a major contributor to the development of OTEC technology. Alexander Kalina, used a mixture of ammonia and water to produce electricity. This new ammonia-water mixture greatly improved the efficiency of the power cycle. In Saga University designed and constructed a 4, applications of ocean energy. The U, applications of ocean energy. InThe U. Hawaii is the best US OTEC location, due to its warm surface water, access to very deep, very cold water, and high electricity costs, applications of ocean energy.

The laboratory has become a leading test facility for OTEC technology. Evaporators and suitably configured direct-contact condensers were developed and patented by SERI see [14] [15] [16]. An original design for a power-producing experiment, then called the kW experiment was described by Kreith and Bharathan[17] and [18] as the Max Jakob Memorial Award Lecture. The initial design used two parallel axial turbines, using last stage rotors taken from large steam turbines.

Later, a team led by Dr. This design integrated all components of the cycle, namely, the evaporator, condenser and the turbine into one single vacuum vessel, with the turbine mounted on top to prevent any potential for water to reach it.

The vessel was made of concrete as the first applications of ocean energy vacuum vessel of its kind. Attempts applications of ocean energy make all components using low-cost plastic material could not be fully achieved, applications of ocean energy some conservatism was required for the turbine and the vacuum pumps developed as the first of their kind.

Later Dr. Luis Vega. The plant was ultimately unsuccessful due to a failure of the deep sea cold water pipe. InMakai Ocean Engineering was awarded a contract from the U. Office of Naval Research ONR to investigate the potential for OTEC to produce nationally significant quantities of hydrogen in at-sea floating plants located in warm, tropical waters. The purpose of the facility is to arrive at an optimal design for OTEC heat exchangers, applications of ocean energy, increasing performance and useful life while reducing cost heat exchangers being the 1 cost driver for an OTEC plant.

This would be the world's first commercial OTEC plant. The main aim is to prove the validity of computer models and demonstrate OTEC to the public. The testing and research will be conducted with the support of Saga University until the end of FY The location was specifically chosen in order to utilize existing deep seawater and surface seawater intake pipes installed for the research center in The pipe is used for the intake of deep sea water for research, fishery, and agricultural use.

This plant operates continuously when specific tests are not underway. An ocean thermal energy conversion power plant built by Makai Ocean Engineering went operational in Hawaii in August The governor of Hawaii, David Ige"flipped the switch" to activate the plant, applications of ocean energy.

It is a demo plant capable of generating kilowatts, enough to power about homes. A heat engine gives greater efficiency when run with a large temperature difference.

It is therefore in the tropics that OTEC offers the greatest possibilities. The main technical challenge of OTEC is to generate significant amounts of power efficiently from small temperature differences. It is still considered an emerging technology. Early OTEC systems were 1 to 3 percent thermally efficientwell below the theoretical maximum 6 and 7 percent for this temperature difference.

Cold seawater is an integral part of each of the three types of OTEC systems: closed-cycle, applications of ocean energy, open-cycle, and hybrid. To operate, the cold seawater must be brought to the surface. The primary approaches are active pumping and desalination. Desalinating seawater near the sea floor lowers its density, applications of ocean energy, which causes it to rise to the surface. The alternative to costly pipes to bring condensing cold water to the surface is to pump vaporized low boiling point fluid into the depths to be condensed, thus reducing pumping volumes and reducing technical and environmental problems and lowering costs.

Warm surface seawater is pumped through a heat exchanger to vaporize the fluid. The expanding vapor turns the turbo-generator. Cold water, pumped through a second heat exchanger, condenses the vapor into a liquid, which is then recycled through the system. Inthe Natural Energy Laboratory and several private-sector partners developed the "mini OTEC" experiment, which achieved the first successful at-sea production of net electrical power from closed-cycle OTEC.

Open-cycle OTEC uses warm surface water directly to make electricity. The warm seawater is first pumped into a low-pressure container, which causes it to boil. In some schemes, the expanding vapour drives a low-pressure turbine attached to an electrical generator.

The vapour, which has left its salt and other contaminants in the low-pressure container, is pure fresh water. It is condensed applications of ocean energy a liquid by exposure to cold temperatures from deep-ocean water.

This method produces desalinized fresh water, suitable for drinking waterirrigation or aquaculture. In other schemes, the rising vapour is used in a gas lift technique of lifting water to significant heights. Depending on the embodiment, applications of ocean energy, such vapour lift pump techniques generate power from a hydroelectric turbine either before or after the pump is used. Inthe Solar Energy Research Institute now known as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed a vertical-spout evaporator to convert warm seawater into low-pressure steam for open-cycle plants.

A hybrid cycle combines the features of the closed- and open-cycle systems. In a hybrid, warm seawater enters a vacuum chamber and is flash-evaporated, applications of ocean energy, similar to the open-cycle evaporation process.

The steam vaporizes the ammonia working fluid of a closed-cycle loop on the other side of an ammonia vaporizer. The vaporized fluid then drives a turbine to produce electricity. The steam condenses within the heat exchanger and provides desalinated water see heat pipe. A popular choice of working fluid is ammonia, which has superior transport properties, easy availability, and low cost.

Ammonia, however, is toxic and flammable. Hydrocarbons too are good candidates, but they are highly flammable; in addition, this would create competition for use of them directly as fuels. The power plant size is dependent upon the vapor pressure of the working fluid. With increasing vapor pressure, the size of the turbine and heat exchangers decreases while the wall thickness of the pipe and heat exchangers increase to endure high pressure especially on the evaporator side.

OTEC has the potential to produce gigawatts of electrical power, and in conjunction with electrolysiscould applications of ocean energy enough hydrogen to completely replace all projected global fossil fuel consumption, applications of ocean energy.

OTEC plants require a long, large diameter intake pipe, which is submerged a kilometer or more into the ocean's depths, to bring cold water to the surface. Land-based and near-shore facilities offer three main advantages over those located in deep water.

Plants constructed on or near land do not require sophisticated mooring, lengthy power cables, or the more extensive maintenance associated with open-ocean environments. They can be installed in sheltered areas so that they are relatively safe from storms and heavy seas. Electricity, desalinated water, and cold, nutrient-rich seawater could be applications of ocean energy from near-shore facilities via trestle bridges applications of ocean energy causeways.

In addition, land-based or near-shore sites allow plants to operate with related industries such as mariculture or those that require desalinated water, applications of ocean energy. Favored locations include those with narrow shelves volcanic islandsapplications of ocean energy, steep degrees offshore slopes, and relatively smooth sea floors.

These sites minimize the length of the intake pipe. A land-based plant could be built well inland from the shore, offering more protection from storms, or on the beach, where the pipes would be shorter. In either case, easy access for construction and operation helps lower costs. Land-based or near-shore sites can also support mariculture or chilled water agriculture. Tanks or lagoons built on shore allow workers to monitor and control miniature marine environments.

Mariculture products can be delivered to market via standard transport. One disadvantage of land-based facilities arises from the turbulent wave action in applications of ocean energy surf zone, applications of ocean energy.

 

Marine Renewable Energy - Ocean Sonics

 

applications of ocean energy

 

Apr 23,  · The million euro Blue-GIFT (Blue Growth and Innovation Fast Tracked) project has announced its first call for applications. The project is a coordinated ocean energy technology demonstration programme, funded by Interreg Atlantic Area, which encourages longer-term demonstration and technology de Author: Robin Whitlock. Renewable energy is the way of the future. The Ocean Sonics family of products ensures that renewable energy projects remain compliant with regulations. The icListen Smart Hydrophone makes underwater sound measurement easy, so securing your project area, monitoring for environemtnal impact, and adhering to regulatory framework is simplified. An ocean thermal energy conversion power plant built by Makai Ocean Engineering went operational in Hawaii in August The governor of Hawaii, David Ige, "flipped the switch" to activate the plant. This is the first true closed-cycle ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plant to .